Operating system (OS) ek aisa software hai jo user aur computer hardware ke beech me ek Interface ka kaam karta hai.  Operating system specialized program ka set hai jo computer ke ovarall operation aur performance ko manage karta hai. OS ek aisa specialized software hai jo computer me maujood sabhi program ke execution ko controls aur monitor karta hai. OS computer ke basic task jaise input lena, instruction ko process karna aur screen pe output ko display karne ka kaam karta hai.

Operating system

Operating system ka use program aur utility ko run karne ke liye kiya jata hai. Computer hardware aur application programme ke beech me ek accha interaction perform karne ke liye OS bridge ka kaam karta hai. UNIX, MS-DOS, MS-Windows – 98/XP/Vista, Windows-NT/2000, OS/2 anr Mac OS  ye kuch OS ke example hai.

Functions of Operating System

Operating system ek resource manager hai jo computer ke sabhi resource ko manage karne ke sath hi Overall activity aur Input aur output ko bhi manage karta hai. Jub hum computer ko start karte hai ya phir shutdown karte hai to jo sab se first aur last software jo hame dikhta hai wo OS hi hai. Operating system ke kuch khas functions niche diye gaye hai.

Storage Management: OS computer ke sabhi Storage Operations ko control karta hai. matlab ke computer me koi bhi file kaise store kiya ja raha hai aur user un files ko kaise access kar rahe hai ye sabhi kaam OS control karta hai.

Process Management: Computer me jitne bhi process hote hai chahe wo computer ke khud ke ho ya phir user ke sabhi ko OS control karta hai.

Memory Management: OS computer ke memory ko bhi manage karta hai, Kisi bhi process ko zaroorat parne pe memory allocate karta hai aur zaroorat khatm ho jane ke baad us memory ko deallocate bhi karta hai.

Extended Machine: Operating system Extended Machine ki tarah behave karta hai aur multiple user ke beech me multiple file share karne, Graphical Environments, Complex Operations ko perform karne, aur communication ke liye bahut se languages provide karta hai.

Types Of Operating System

Operating system ko unke working ke hisab se categorize kiya jata hai. Kuch khas operating system jinhe zyadatar use kiya jata hai unke naam niche diye gaye hai.

Serial processing: Serial processing operating system aisa OS hai jo sabhi kaam ko sequencial manner me karta hai. Is OS me koi bhi kaam FIFO ( First in first out) Manner mehota hai. Jo instruction pahle aate hai use pahle process kiya jata hai aur jo baad me aate hai unhe baad me process kiya jata hai.

Batch Processing: Batch processing Serial Processing Technique ki tarah hi kaam karta lekin is OS me Similar Type ke jobs ko pahle Prepare kiya jata hai aur ek card pe store kiya jata hai aur us card ko process karne ke liye system ko submit kiya jata hai.

Real-Time System: Is operating system ka use wahan kiya jata hai jahan higher aur timely response ki zaroorat hoti hai jaise ki reservation. Is OS me response time fix hota hai, processor ya CPU result ko ek fix time me display karta hai.

Distributed Operating System: Is operating system me data Network me bahut se location pe store aur process hota hai. Is OS me multiple real-time application ko process karne ke liye multiple processors ka use kiya jata hai.

Multiprocessing: Is OS me do ya us se zyada CPU OS me hote hai. Aise operating system me kisi bhi kaam ko saare OS ke bich me divide kiya jata hai. Agar system me maujood koi ek processor kisi kaam ko jaldi khatm kar leta hi to bacha hua kaam dono processor ke beech me divide ho jata hai.

Parallel operating systems: Ye OS computer ke sabhi running resource jaise memory, caches, storage space, aur processing power ko parallelly manage karta hai.